From Skyrim Wiki
The most common puzzles in the game are the pillar puzzles, the dragon claw puzzles and lever puzzles.
 Pillar puzzles
 Dragon claw puzzles
|Dragon claw puzzles are easier to solve as they involve a dragon claw on which there are three animal glyphs shown in a particular order. These claws are used to open large stone doorways which have 4 concentric rings. The outer three each rotate to select one of three animal glyphs each and must be matched with those on the dragon claw. The innermost circle is the "keyhole" into which the dragon claw is inserted once the outer three rings have been rotated to show the appropriate glyphs at the top.|